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  1. According to Energy Post, the Internet will consume 20% of the projected electricity demand with 8000 TWh by 2030, making it one of the most energy-intensive sectors in the world. Hyperscale data centers typically use cutting-edge technologies — facility designs, cooling systems, and workload-optimized equipment to improve efficiency, but the current centralized approach leads to many bottlenecks. While many in the sector are trying to reduce energy consumption by powering their infrastructures with renewable energies, it will not shift the trend. Companies in the industry must commit to reach the “zero carbon footprint” threshold and fast. In this article, you’ll discover more about the current energy consumption of the cloud industry, what we can do to improve the situation, and the best options to reduce the carbon footprint. Current Energy Usage Problems With Data Storage Today, the world's largest technology companies (Facebook, Amazon, Google, Microsoft, Apple, amongst others) own 80% of the global Internet and cloud infrastructure and 60% of its networks. This also makes them responsible for the increased global energy usage and the environmental impact related to that consumption. Here are some statistics indicating that this trend is in full bloom: A case that summarizes the vast footprint that companies create by choosing traditional data centers is Netflix. Alone, Netflix is responsible for 18% of today’s internet traffic. The main reason is that while it is the world’s favorite streaming platform, most of its data resides in centralized data centers. Data needs to travel to all the rest of the world. If Netflix could host their data on a peer-to-peer network, it would look like torrents and come with the following benefits: - Low carbon footprint - 24/7 availability of information - Available anywhere around the world - 100% secure information A Change in Hyperscale Data-centers energy usage has been relatively stable over the last half-decade, thanks partly to the emergence of super-efficient information factories with an ordered, standardized computing architecture that quickly scales up to hundreds of thousands of servers. Hyperscale data centers first appeared around a decade ago, when corporations like Amazon and Google began to require fleets of a quarter-million or more servers. According to a 2016 assessment by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, moving 80% of servers in small US data centers to hyperscale facilities will result in a 25% reduction in energy usage. That transition is now underway. Today, the globe contains approximately 400 hyperscale data centers, many of which provide services to modest businesses or colleges that would not have had their servers in the past. On the other hand, there is a clear trend that companies are using cloud storage solutions that are based on hyperscale data centers, which makes it a matter of great concern. How Can We Improve Energy Efficiency in the Cloud Storage Sector? Researchers in academic labs and engineers at some of the world's wealthiest organizations are exploring possible solutions to improve the industry's efficiency in energy consumption. They are optimizing the following: 1. Computer Operations Efficiency One growingly proposed solution is to ensure that servers are running at total capacity as feasible, while others are shut off rather than being left idle. For example, Facebook developed a mechanism called Autoscale that decreases the number of servers that must be on during low-traffic hours. In experiments, this resulted in power savings of roughly 10–15%, according to the company's 2014 report. Nevertheless, these efficiency improvement rates are not high enough. 2. Generating Renewables Sources The fast global deployment of the technology that uses renewable energy sources, paired with quick learning rates, has reduced their prices. This trend is expected to continue, making renewables more competitive with fossil fuels in all nations throughout the world and the most cost-effective alternative in an increasing number of markets. In the image below, you can see the % of savings. Since 2010, big tech companies have been committing themselves to use 100% renewable energy. In 2011, Facebook pledged to do it, and in 2012, Google and Apple followed suit. Nearly 20 Internet corporations had done the same as of 2017. However, there must be an investment decision made to make renewable sources available for all. That’s why it’s not a sustainable solution now. 3. Cool Peer-to-Peer Cloud Storage Data Centers Standard cooling systems use approximately 40% of the energy cost in traditional data centers. But there is another problem with this solution because cooling towers, which evaporate water to drive air conditioning, consume vast amounts of liters of water, eliminating compression chillers and cooling towers that save energy and water. In 2014, data centers in the United States utilized around 100 billion liters of water to do this. One frequent method to reduce energy usage is to place data centers in colder climates and bring fresh air from outside. This measure helps to reduce overcrowding, although it does not solve the problem entirely. 4. Recycle Waste Heat The notion of leveraging the heat coming off the servers to save power consumption elsewhere coincides with improved cooling. However, because heat does not move well, waste-heat utilization is often confined to data centers near a nearby client or in a city that already utilizes piped hot water to heat houses. 5. Peer-to-Peer Cloud Storage So let's imagine the cloud and internet as a decentralized network composed of nodes that keep an up-to-date copy of all encrypted information, making it secure and private. This solution is private and safe and genuinely the most sustainable alternative that will drastically reduce energy use in the data storage sector. All this makes the ThreeFold peer-to-peer cloud storage the best option, and here’s why. ThreeFold P2P Decentralized Data Storage — The First Real Step to Energy Efficiency Did you know that the energy consumption range of internet data worldwide is from 0.004 kWh/GB to 136 kWh/GB? ThreeFold’s power usage, on the other hand, is 0.00086 kWh per GB (21.5% less than the lower range). ThreeFold is an entirely peer-to-peer cloud storage solution that provides the most secure and private decentralized cloud solution that recently claimed to go carbon neutral before the end of 2021. Here are their main features: Limitless workloads: In a secure end-to-end environment, you can scale your workloads indefinitely. The world's first carbon-neutral peer-to-peer network: To allow the world's first carbon-neutral network, the leftover carbon footprint of the grid will be transformed into carbon credits and invested in planet-positive projects. Decentralized: With dedicated CPU, SSD drives, and RAM — just for your web application or development environment — you can run your Kubernetes workloads anywhere in the globe, outside the power of centralized parties. Compatibility: It is compatible with IPFS and Hypercore / Hyperdrive. On top of that, any storage platform may be placed. As a result, this is the most trustworthy and globally scalable filesystem yet devised. Encryption: A public peer-to-peer cloud network that connects the whole earth. End-to-end encryption is used, and the quickest path is taken. Marketplace for dApps: A marketplace for pre-built peer-to-peer network apps for community builders looking for alternatives to centralized services. Infrastructure provider: Smart contracts for IT enable the provisioning and management of decentralized cloud crypto resources systematically. Make ThreeFold Grid installations that are repeatable and scalable. We need people to take energy-saving more seriously and renew their cloud storage systems. Zero carbon footprint is the goal.
  2. Did you know that, according to Varonis 2019 Global Data Risk Report, on average, only 5% of companies’ folders are adequately protected? The fact that various difficulties were brought with COVID-19 in 2020 drove corporations toward remote staff and cloud-based technologies where information vulnerability created a massive need for companies to improve their cyber assets or risk data loss and increment costs. In this article, you’ll discover more about the two main reasons why the Internet urgently needs a P2P global network and the best alternative that implements this innovative technology. Feature 1: Internet Security Cybercrime has increased by 600% due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Fraudsters have boosted the use of sophisticated email, mobile, and computer malware armed with the knowledge that people spend more time on their electronic devices. Undoubtedly, with the introduction of machine learning and tailored spear-phishing emails, malware attacks have become increasingly sophisticated, which generates the need to implement a P2P network to overcome. The chart below shows this tendency as well: Let’s see each section in more detail. 1) Email Malware An email malware is a harmful code spread in electronic mail and can be activated when a user clicks on a link, opens an email attachment, or interacts with the infected message in some other way. According to Purplesec 2021 Cyber Security Report, malware is sent through email in 92% of cases, so knowing how to recognize it can prevent being scammed in a non-P2P network architecture. The following are some "red flags" that suggest an email may contain malware: 1. Suspicious sender's email address: If the sender's email address is unknown or does not match an expected address for a corporation, it's likely a malware email. 2. Your username appears in the email topic or attachment: A virus email's subject box may contain your username or be blank. Your username could be included in the filename of malicious attachments. 3. Malware emails frequently include the words "warning," "danger," or "urgency" to entice recipients to respond hastily before they have had enough time to consider their options. If you receive an email that asks you to download a file to remedy an issue, be cautious. 2) Mobile Malware Mobile malware is malicious software meant to attack mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets to obtain personal information. According to Purplesec, the number of new malware types for mobile devices surged by 54% in 2018, which could arguably be prevented using a P2P open network. Here are some security tips for avoiding mobile malware: 1. Connect to a secure Wi-Fi network: When people access their private data in public places, like an airport with free Wi-Fi, the data may be accessible to criminal users sniffing wireless traffic at the same point of access. 2. Prevent Jailbreaking: Jailbreaking means breaking the device’s security model and allowing all apps, including malicious ones, to access the data owned by other apps. 3. Encrypt your devices: It makes it extremely hard for someone to break and steal data by protecting your gadgets by fully encrypting the device. Setting the device and the SIM card with a secure password is essential. 3) Computer Malware Have you ever noticed strange cases of image pixelation or random windows popping up on your screen? Or maybe you heard weird sounds? If your answer is yes, there is a high chance that malware or virus may have invaded your machine, making the use of a P2P virtual network urgently required. According to Purplesec, macOS malware grew 165% over the last year, and Windows development rates for malware dropped from an all-time high to 11.6%. However, there are precautions you can take to avoid this kind of malware: 1. Update your antivirus: You must make sure that your apps, antivirus software, and operating system are up to date to prevent your computer from becoming infected. 2. Automatic virus scanning: Your antivirus software should contain automated functions allowing continuous scanning of your machine against viruses and performing cleanup. 3. Reboot in safe mode: Safely starting your computer offers you the opportunity to run your antivirus program and look more closely at the (potential) problem. Feature 2: Decentralized Data There are several examples of massive sales of data from major technology companies to third parties previously seen, making it urgent that data is spread in a fully decentralized internet now. When someone provides personal information to a company or any governmental entity, most people do not understand how it is used and stored nowadays, which produces concerns about the potential risks that data can suffer when stored in centralized data centers. Let’s see the differences between centralized and P2P open network. 1) Centralized Data Storage Did you know that 80% of the world’s data currently resides in hyperscale data centers in central locations concentrated in 20 companies? Centralized data storage systems are built on a central server where authorized persons can manage the information to make possible data traceability. One of the most significant disadvantages of centralized data storage is that it has deficient privacy standards, making it easier for third-party participants to access data through hacks. 2) Decentralized Data Storage A decentralized cloud crypto strategy involves using several separate devices linked to the network, supplied by various nodes. These nodes retain autonomous control, which allows each of them to determine its criteria for the availability of data workload. A P2P network offers increasing data privacy and transparency, reducing processing needs which drastically decrease resource usage, making it cheaper to run within the decentralized web. After describing these two essential features that the Internet must have now, we firmly believe that ThreeFold is the best alternative to make a more secure, decentralized, and sovereign internet. ThreeFold Is the Best Solution to Have a Fully Peer-to-Peer and Secure Internet ThreeFold is a peer-to-peer cloud storage solution granting substantial energy efficiency compared to existing data storage systems while letting information be 100% secure, private, and available 24/7 without exception. This fully decentralized platform improves: 1) Network Security To close the enormous security gap in data centers nowadays, the ThreeFold P2P virtual network has developed its operating system called Zero-OS, which runs on the nodes. Every node is linked inside a specified network and has its iPv4 or iPv6 address, which keeps the information 100% encrypted and private to the user. Also, the Peer-to-Peer Network uses a web gateway mechanism that allows the exposure of services to the open internet without allowing incoming connections to keep applications and storage secure at all times. This means there is no incoming TCP/IP traffic allowed from the outside. 2) Network Efficiency & Scalability ThreeFold’s Peer-to-Peer Network was designed to find the shortest possible path between peers and encrypt the end-to-end connection. It allows for peer-to-peer links like in meshed wireless networks. This is very different from consensus mechanisms like distributed blockchains which use more networks than centralized networks. When you download the same file from a peer-to-peer network, using a BitTorrent platform as a starting point, the download is performed differently. The file is downloaded to your computer in bits and parts from many other computers connected to the same P2P network and already have that file or at least parts of it. At the same time, the file is also sent (uploaded) from your computer to other devices that are asking for it. This situation is similar to a two-way road: the file is like multiple small cars coming to your PC while also leaving to others when it is requested. When it comes to file-sharing, the larger a P2P network is, the faster it is. Having the same file stored on many of the peers in a P2P network means that when someone needs to download it, the file is downloaded from multiple locations simultaneously. Peer-to-peer networks are incredibly scalable. Adding new peers is easy as you don’t need to do any central configuration on a central server. 3) Centralized Data & Points of Failure Nowadays, the centralized data issue is not the only problem that information management is facing. There are also central points of failure in the system, which leads to sporadic shutdowns that sometimes can last minutes and even hours. To overcome today's colossal data centralization gap, ThreeFold has created the most optimized peer-to-peer cloud network, bringing privacy by design. All data and applications remain under the user’s control. Therefore, a P2P global network, such as the one offered by ThreeFold, stimulates equality by blocking a substantial amount of single-player data accumulation and also eliminates the possibility of making websites around the world to be disconnected because of the internet shutdowns.
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